- Electricity production for users who are not directly connected to the production plant (local and remote users via RTN).
- Heat energy generation for technological use and production processes at different temperature levels (local users).
- Heat energy generation for district-heating (local and remote users)
The frequently asked questions regarding the CO-VER Power Technology world.
What are the applications of a cogeneration or trigeneration plant?
What are the technical and economic advantages of cogeneration and trigeneration?
- Energy saving, reduction of primary energy demand in order to produce the same amount of energy (savings of 25% on fuel utilized to produce the same electrical and thermal energy).
- More environmentally friendly production process (reduction of CO2 emissions).
- Increased security of supply.
- Reduction in losses along the power line (plants located in the vicinity of consumption points).
- Benefits for remote areas or outermost regions.
- Greater competition with the "big" manufacturers.
- Encouraging creation of new businesses and skilled employment.
What does it mean being an ESCo in the cogeneration field?
The ESCo formula is based on multi-annual contracts which provide for:
- The realization of energy efficiency measures (construction of a High Efficiency cogeneration power plant) financed by the proposing organization (ESCo) at the site of an industrial client.
- Management of production and sale of energy carriers by ESCo (electricity and thermal energy in the form of hot water, steam, chilled water, etc.) for the exclusive use of the client.
- Guarantee by ESCo that Client will achieve savings in both electrical and thermal energy requirements as well as procurement costs.
- Acquisition of entitlement to the assignment of Energy Efficiency Certificates (TEE) by the Italian Authority for Electricity and Gas (AEEG), proportional to the savings of primary energy "certified” resulting from the commissioning of the New Power Plant.
- Opportunity to sell TEE certificates to obliged entities (large electricity distributors with customers exceeding 50,000 units) at values established by the growing market.
What is cogeneration and trigeneration?
Cogeneration is a plant for the combined production of electrical and thermal energy.
Trigeneration is a cogeneration plant which can also produce chilled water using absorption refrigerators.
What is a CAR facility?
CAR is the abbreviation for “high efficiency cogeneration” plants. These plants respect the requirements laid down in Decree no. 20 of 8 February 2007 which implemented the 2004/8/CE directive of the European Parliament and Council. As a general rule a plant produces in line with CAR requirements when its primary energy saving index PES (“Primary Energy Saving”) exceeds a predetermined limit value.
What is Owner Engineering?
The Owner Engineer is the figure, or the team that supports the client during all phases of the contract to ensure the successful completion of the project.
What is EPCM?
”Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management”.
In this form of contract the Client negotiates directly with sub-suppliers of products/services; the team providing EPCM services guarantees the engineering and technical know-how the Client requires. They ensure that the project is carried out on time and according to specifications, supporting the customer in the supplier selection process, procurement and expediting orders, cost control and project management.
What is EPC?
“Engineering, Procurement and Construction”.
In this form of contract the General Contractor has full responsibility to design, build and deliver the facility to the Purchaser. This form of contract coincides with the "turnkey contract”.
What are the advantages of EPCM compared to EPC?
- Cost riduction
Cutting the General Contractor cost gives an average savings of 10% to 20% on a project managed with the EPCM formula rather than EPC formula.
The signing of contracts for the purchase of main equipment with lengthy delivery times can take place before the detailed design of the entire plant has been completed. With the EPC formula most of the elements need to be defined before signing the contract.
- Better control
The Client can keep better control of the entire construction process of its facility.
In which cases is maintenance on power plants mandatory?
In all workplaces (Legislative Decree no. 81/08 Art.86 paragraph 1).
In all plants (also for civilian use) falling within the scope of D.M. 37/08 article 8 paragraph 2.
Is it mandatory to keep records of maintenance checks?
Yes, in all workplaces (Legislative Decree no. 81/08 Art.86 paragraph 3).
Can maintenance carried out in accordance with the Legislative Decree 81/08 be used in alternative to the checks required by the Presidential Decree 462/01?
No, these are additional activities (both mandatory) which are carried out using methods and tests focusing on different aspects and with a largely different scope.
What are the energy efficiency certificates, white certificates and the TEE?
The Energy Efficiency Certificates (TEE), also called white certificates, are established by Decree of the Ministry of Industry, in consultation with the Minister of Environment and Territory Protection 20 July 2004 (DM 20/7/04 electricity, DM 20/7/04 gas) subsequently amended and supplemented by the DM 21/12/07 determining the national quantitative targets of energy efficiency.
Who issues the TEE?
The TEE are issued by the GME in favour of the distributors, of the companies controlled by the same distributors and of the companies providing energy services (ESCo) with the scope of certifying reduction in energy consumption through implementation of projects aimed at increasing energy efficiency.
What is the ISO 50001?
The UNI CEI EN ISO 50001 “Energy management systems” outlines the requirements needed to create, start-up, maintain and improve an Energy Management System (EMS).
What is meant by Energy Management System (EMS)?
The European standard UNI CEI EN ISO 5001 defines the “Energy Management System (EMS) as the components of an organization aimed at defining an energy policy which outlines relevant objectives for the implementation of processes and procedures in order to achieve those goals”.
An Energy Management System (EMS) enables an organization to achieve continuous improvement of energy performance through a systematic approach.
What is an energy audit?
The energy audit, in accordance with Decree. 102/2014, is the analysis of the existing energy consumption status and the identification of solutions and related investments aimed at reducing consumption.
Which companies are affected by the mandatory energy audit?
According to Decree. 102/2014, large companies and enterprises with high energy consumption (energy-intensive users), regardless of their size, had to carry out an energy audit by 12.05.2015 and subsequently have had to perform this procedure every four years.
Large enterprise are considered to be those companies employing more than 250 people and whose annual turnover exceeds 50 million Euros or whose annual balance sheet total exceeds 43 million Euros.
Energy-intensive companies are considered to be those entities included in the list drawn up annually by the Equalisation Fund for the electricity sector under Interministerial Decree 5 April 2013.
Which entities are entitled to carry out an energy audit?
Decree 102/2014 gives a precise definition of the entities exclusively entitled to carry out energy audits:
- ESCOs (Energy Service Company) certified according to UNI CEI 11352
- EGE (Experts in Energy Management) certified according to UNI CEI 11339
- Energy Auditor